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Tomato yellow ring virus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Tomato yellow ring virus

PRA area: Poland

Described of the endangered area: Tomato crops– central Poland; Ornamental plants crops– the entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Tomato yellow ring virus may cause serious losses in cultivations of tomato, potato, ornamental plants. Virus transfer easily in mechanical way. Therefore there is high risk that the virus may be delivered unconsciously over and beetween crops (especially when infections are asymptomatic)

Additionally, risk of TYRV spread increases if vectors (Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci) occur.

Virus was detected in Poland in tomato crops (during one vegetation cycle) (Zarzyńska-Nowak et. al 2016). Probably, virus was transfered to Poland with tomato seedlings. There is no more information of virus occurence in PRA area.

TYRV has broad host range but was reported in most cases in tomato crops along with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV).

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Other recommendations:

·         Controls of imported propagation material

·         Monitoring of tomato and potato crops

·         Vectors– Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci– monitoring

·         Fruit and ornamental plant producers need to be informed about import requirements and use only certified viroid-free propagation material


Viteus vitifoliae

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Viteus vitifoliae

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: vineyards – southern, south-western part of Poland, greenhouse cultivations- the entire PRA area

Main conclusions:

Viteus vitifoliae (Fitch) is native to North America. Pathogen probably was introduced accidentally in 1860 to Europe. (along with seedlings of american varietes which were resistant to Powdery Mildew and caused serious losses in European vineyards).

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: High

Rating of the likelihood of entry: High (because of unregulated import of plants for planting and significant difficulties in pest detection). Considering  climatic conditions and occurence of host plants in PRA area, it is likely that that pest will be able to establish and cause serious losses in cultivations.

Pest may spread quickly and can be transmitted with plants for planting, soil and fruits (if imported with leaves). Other, possibile way of entry is transmission with contaminated tools and machinery, clothing, part of plants.

Use of resistant rootstocks is the main control measure (especially in place of production).Planting material used for vineyard (new one or renewal) need to be certified and free from V.vitifoliae. Certification Scheme in EU need however be fine-tuned. Systematic control of pathogen or its symptoms occurence is a basic phytosanitary measure.

Systematic monitoring of pathogen occurence need to be taken in vineyards. The strictest hygienic measures need to be observes in place of production (taking place only in virus-free places, using thoroughly cleaned or new packages). It will reduce the risk of contamination or spread of virus.

Weakened plants are especially vulnerable to infection. Research is ongoing on efficacy of chemical protection in place of production. There is no specific diagnostic tests for Viteus vitifoliae. Fumigated with hexachlorobutadiene and/or hot-water treatment are taken as preventing measures.

V. vitifoliae na may cause serious losses in vinified production, production of grape and import of host plants in case of pest occurence in PRA area.
Preventive cultural practices and methods of Viteus vitifoliae ereditation will be developed and included in IPM strategies in the near future.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Other recommendations:


Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Smith) Vauterin, Hoste, Kersters & Swings

PRA area: Poland

Decribed of endangered area: stone fruits crops – most of peach, nectarine, apricot, cherries orchads are in Wielkopolskie, Mazowieckie, Świetokrzyskie and Podkarpackie provinces (GUS 2012)

Main conclusions:

X. arboricola pv. pruni is bacteria which infects Japanese plum (Prunus salicina), peach (Prunus persica) i apricot (Prunus armeniaca). All of those plants are rarely cultivated in Poland. However, other host species ( Prunus avium, Prunus cera sus, Prunus domestica) are cultivated in large areas in Poland. Moreover some host species are growing in wild. Given the above, the likelihood of pest establishment is PRA area is moderate.

Rating of the likelihood of spread: low (Because of systematic controls of propagation material and lack of vectors)

In accordance with Regulation of the Ministry of agriculture and rural development of 21.02.2008 relating to preventing the introduction and spread of quarantine pests – the need to import only X. arboricola pv. Pruni-free plants for planting (not seeds) belong to Prunus genus.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: low (infested fruits may be imported from area of pest occurence)

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: low (except area of host plants crops).

Phytosanitary measures are basic methods in case of pathogen occurence in propagation material or in seedlings.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Other recommendations:



Xiphinema californicum

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Xiphinema californicum Lamberti and Bleve-Zacheo, 1979

PRA area:  Poland

Describe the endangered area: the entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Xiphinema californicum is a vector of three viruses (Tobacco ringspot virus, Tomato ringspot virus and Cherry rasp leaf virus). These plant viruses infect important cultivated species like: apple tree, maize, wheat.

Xiphinema californicum is polyphagous species such as others of Longidoridae family. List of host plants may therefore be longer. Potential risk of losses in crops is low becouse of climatic conditions (even despite high adaptive capacity of Xiphinema californicum) in PRA area at the moment. The pest may appear and cause serious crop losses in PRA area in case of climatic changes.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: Low

Pest may be transfer with soil.

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: Low

Pest probably will not survive in PRA area, becouse of climatic conditions.

Rating of the likelihood of spread: Moderate

Only if pest will be able to survive under climatic conditions.

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: High

Only if pest will be able to survive under climatic conditions.

Potential risk or losses caused by this pest are low becouse of climatic conditions in PRA area at the moment. The assessment should be repeated in case of climatic changes.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

Other recommendations:

Systematic controls of soil nematodes occurence (including X. californicum)



Xylosandrus compactus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff)

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: Palm Houses and greenhouses

Main conclusions

Xylosandrus compactus causes serious economic losses in crops in its native and new distributional range. Considering that it is a tropical species, it is not expected that pest will be able to survive in Poland. Therefore, potential impact of pest in PRA area should be lower then in its native range. The spread and population size will be limited by climatic conditions. The most of host plants are not present in Poland. Probably, there is a risk that pest may attack new local plant species.

Chemical phytosanitary measures are commonly used and the efficiency of them is on high level (more then 90%). Infected plants need to be destroy but this method is more labour-intensive and less efficient.

It is necessary to set the conditions at which pest can not survive (especially the temperature range). This knowledge will be used to choose the best eradication method.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations


Zaprionus indianus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Zaprionus indianus

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:  fruit crops in protected conditions and orchards

Main conclusions

Zaprionus indianus is a species of small fruit fly. Larvae feed principally on decomposing fruits. It is not considered to attack unripe and undamaged fruit. The most likely way of entry is transmission with imported fruits.

Considering that Z. indianus is a tropical species, it is not expected that it will be able to survive and establish of permanent populations (the ephemeral populations are possible during the warmer, milder months) in PRA area.

Phytosanitary measures should be based on monitoring of Zaprionus indianus larvae occurrence in imported fruits, especially in warmer months and from pest native ranges.

Infected fruits should be destroyed for example by burning.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Other recommendations:

More reasearch of  Z. indianus biology and harmufullness