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Meloidogyne ethiopica

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: Based on climate analysis, M. ethiopica might colonise PRA area in both- open field and greenhouse crops.

Main conclusions

M. ethiopica can be introduced in PRA area with plant tissues, growing medium, vegetable waste or for research purposes. Root-knot nematode might colonise the entire PRA area. It is difficult to estimate the pest impact on field crops, but we can observe losses in greenhouses (with natural growing medium). There is no information about resistance of using plant varietes.

Probability of introduction and spread can be reduced by:

·         consignments control- a systematic examination in order to detect the presence of pest

·         using only nematoda-free propagation material,

·         in case of pest occurence in field crops- pest removal from the machines, agricultural tools, infected plants

·          using chemical pesticides

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations:


Meloidogyne fallax

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Meloidogyne fallax Karssen, 1996

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: M. fallax is a pathogen of many monocot and dicot species but it has been mainly recorded on potato, oyster plant (Scorzonera hispanica) and carrot. Nematoda may cause losses in carrot, potato, oyster plant crops in PRA area. The likelihood of losses increase in crops on sandy soils.

Main conclusions:

The entire country is endangered in case of M. fallax occurrence. Many of host plants grow and are cultivated in PRA area. Based on available literature data, pest may cause losses in carrot, potato, oyster plant crops in PRA area  There is also a risk that M. Falla may cause damages in cultivations in protected conditions.

Phytosanitary measures:

  1. Examination of consignments
  2. Using of nematode free planting material
  3. In case of pest occurence in field crops: Strict measures must be taken to prevent pest entry or further spread within the Poland. Pest need to be immediately and completely eradicated.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Other recommendations:





Neodiprion abietis

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Neodiprion abietis Harris, 1841

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: forests, parks and plantings in garden and urban areas

Main conclusions

Neodiprion abietis is a main forest pest in its native range (North America: Canada, USA). Pest is a tree defoliator whose larvae feed mainly on 1 or 2-year old needles, rather on younger. The balsam fir sawfly feeds on Abies balsamea and other conifers in its native range. Larvae feeding is responsible for defoliation and foliage weight loss in trees and can caused weakening in plant vitality and even tree moratlity.

Main ways of entry are import of cut-flowers and branches of no host plants (In 2016 in Neatherlands pupae of N. abietis was found in Gaultheria cut-branches imported from USA),import of seedlings, plants for planting (especially of ornamental plants), cut trees- christmas trees and spread of winged adults.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: High (in case of large import volumes. of potentially infected plants)

Neodiprion abietis is native North America (Canada) species. Considering that climate conditions in Poland are similar to those in its native range the entire PRA area is potentially endangered.

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors: Moderate (There is lack of informations about new potential host plants in PRA area )

Monitoring of constigments (from production to transport) is a basic phytosanitary measure. The production should take place in pest-free area. The phtotsanitary measures (like removing of plants waste) must be respected on all levels of preparation of packages. All products need to be detroy in case of pest occurence. There is no informaction on systemic insecticide efficiency.

Research is currently being conducted as to the possibility of NeabNPV using in biological control of pest.

More reasearch of  N. abietis biology and  methods of its control is needed. 

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Other recommendations




Phyllosticta solitaria

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Phyllosticta solitaria

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:  The entire PRA area

Main conclusions:

Phyllosticta solitaria is a plant pathogen that infects apple, pears, thornapples (cultivated and wild). P. solitaria causes apple blotch. Pathogen occurs in North America. It was reported only once in Europe in the mid-20th century in Denmark. Recently published reports from the USA suggest that losses caused by Phyllosticta solitaria has been decreasing in the last few years.

Pathogen prefers high temperature and humidity. Given the above, climatic conditions in PRA area are adverse for Phyllosticta solitaria. Fungus still could potentially pose a risk for apple orchards, because of lack of pathogens with the same ecological niche.

In case of climatic change Phyllosticta solitaria may cause serious losses in apple and pear crops.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Other recommendations:

Monitoring of susceptible crops (apple, pears orchads)

Monitoring of  Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus plants for planting


Phytophthora chrysanthemi

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Phytophthora chrysanthemi

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: the entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Phytophthora chrysanthemi is pathogen of plants of genus Chrysanthemum. From 1998 (Naher et. al. 2011) to 2017 P. chrysanthemi was detected in 4 countries (Tomiċ and  Iviċ 2015, Götz et. al 2017).

Phytophthora chrysanthemi also appears in Germany, which are second only to Netherlands in production of plant material for cultivation and export.

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: High

Greenhouses crops are at particular risk due to sufficient (high temperature) conditions.

Rating of the likelihood of damage in open air cultivation: Low

Potential risk of losses caused by pathogen is low because of climatic conditions in PRA area at the moment. The assessment should be repeated in case of climatic changes.

Additionally, the similarity of symptoms between infections caused by Phytophthora chrysanthemi and other Phytophthora species can cause numerous misidentifications.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: moderate

Rating of the likelihood of establishment: high (for crops in protected conditions)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: low

Pest may spread in field crops and gardens in case of climatic changes in PRA area.

Control of imported material from area of pest occurence is a basic phytosanitary measure.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations