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Neodiprion abietis

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Neodiprion abietis Harris, 1841

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: forests, parks and plantings in garden and urban areas

Main conclusions

Neodiprion abietis is a main forest pest in its native range (North America: Canada, USA). Pest is a tree defoliator whose larvae feed mainly on 1 or 2-year old needles, rather on younger. The balsam fir sawfly feeds on Abies balsamea and other conifers in its native range. Larvae feeding is responsible for defoliation and foliage weight loss in trees and can caused weakening in plant vitality and even tree moratlity.

Main ways of entry are import of cut-flowers and branches of no host plants (In 2016 in Neatherlands pupae of N. abietis was found in Gaultheria cut-branches imported from USA),import of seedlings, plants for planting (especially of ornamental plants), cut trees- christmas trees and spread of winged adults.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: High (in case of large import volumes. of potentially infected plants)

Neodiprion abietis is native North America (Canada) species. Considering that climate conditions in Poland are similar to those in its native range the entire PRA area is potentially endangered.

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors: Moderate (There is lack of informations about new potential host plants in PRA area )

Monitoring of constigments (from production to transport) is a basic phytosanitary measure. The production should take place in pest-free area. The phtotsanitary measures (like removing of plants waste) must be respected on all levels of preparation of packages. All products need to be detroy in case of pest occurence. There is no informaction on systemic insecticide efficiency.

Research is currently being conducted as to the possibility of NeabNPV using in biological control of pest.

More reasearch of  N. abietis biology and  methods of its control is needed. 

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Other recommendations



Phyllosticta solitaria

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Phyllosticta solitaria

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:  The entire PRA area

Main conclusions:

Phyllosticta solitaria is a plant pathogen that infects apple, pears, thornapples (cultivated and wild). P. solitaria causes apple blotch. Pathogen occurs in North America. It was reported only once in Europe in the mid-20th century in Denmark. Recently published reports from the USA suggest that losses caused by Phyllosticta solitaria has been decreasing in the last few years.

Pathogen prefers high temperature and humidity. Given the above, climatic conditions in PRA area are adverse for Phyllosticta solitaria. Fungus still could potentially pose a risk for apple orchards, because of lack of pathogens with the same ecological niche.

In case of climatic change Phyllosticta solitaria may cause serious losses in apple and pear crops.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Other recommendations:

Monitoring of susceptible crops (apple, pears orchads)

Monitoring of  Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus plants for planting


Phytophthora chrysanthemi

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Phytophthora chrysanthemi

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: the entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Phytophthora chrysanthemi is pathogen of plants of genus Chrysanthemum. From 1998 (Naher et. al. 2011) to 2017 P. chrysanthemi was detected in 4 countries (Tomiċ and  Iviċ 2015, Götz et. al 2017).

Phytophthora chrysanthemi also appears in Germany, which are second only to Netherlands in production of plant material for cultivation and export.

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: High

Greenhouses crops are at particular risk due to sufficient (high temperature) conditions.

Rating of the likelihood of damage in open air cultivation: Low

Potential risk of losses caused by pathogen is low because of climatic conditions in PRA area at the moment. The assessment should be repeated in case of climatic changes.

Additionally, the similarity of symptoms between infections caused by Phytophthora chrysanthemi and other Phytophthora species can cause numerous misidentifications.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: moderate

Rating of the likelihood of establishment: high (for crops in protected conditions)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: low

Pest may spread in field crops and gardens in case of climatic changes in PRA area.

Control of imported material from area of pest occurence is a basic phytosanitary measure.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations



Puccinia pittieriana

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Puccinia pittieriana Hennings

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: the entire PRA area

Puccinia pittieriana is a microcyclic rust fungus. This plant pathogen infects agricultural crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and wild species of Solanum genus in South and Central America. Puccinia pittieriana is noted as quarantine organism on EPPO A1 list for Europa (EPPO 2018) and in Annex 2, point A - Section 1 of Council Directive 2000/29/EC.Fungus may infect plants in cool, moist regions of temperate and tropical zones.

Basidiospores are short-lived and produced in low numbers, wind-borne but no for a long distances.

P. pittieriana was detected in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay and Venezuela (IMI 1994). There is no informaction about pest occurrence in crops in PRA area.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: Low (There is a possibility of spread and access to the host plants in case of fungus entry in the PRA area)

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: Low (because of low possibility that teliospores and basidiospores may be transmitted from South and Central America to Poland)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: Low (because of plants material monitoring, phytosanitary controls, special import procedures)

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: Low (because of other ratings)

The greatest risk of entry is associated with import of infected plants or soil from areas where fungus occurs. Inspection of imported material from South and Central America is a basic phytosanitary measure. Infected material need to be destroy for example by burning (infected plants are sources of inoculum).

Fungicides based od imidazoles and triazoles are efficient method of plants protection (French et. al. 1972, Quijano 1988, Velastegui 1991).

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations


Radopholus similis

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Radopholus similis (Cobb, 1893) Thorne, 1949

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: Radopholus similis is native to a wide range of tropical and subtropical regions. Considering climatic conditions in PRA area, it is unlikely that pest will be able to establish in field-crops. Pest probably will not be able to survive in temperature under 0℃. Only greenhouse crops may be endangered in case of pest occurence in PRA area. Nematoda may cause losses in pot plants in flats, because of suitable conditions

Main conclusions:

Climatic conditions in PRA area are very different from those in pest native regions.

Given the above, R. similis poses no risk to field-crops. Pest may cause losses only in heating greenhouses.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Other recommendations:



Scirrhia acicola

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Scirrhia acicola (Dearness) Siggers

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: areas of Pinus species occurrence

Main conclusions:

Mycosphaerella dearnessii (Scirrhia acicola), causes brown-spot needle blight (EPPO/CABI 1997) of many pine species. The brown-spot fungus mainly attacks trees from Central to North America but also in Europe (Pehl 1995). Pathogen was detected in both urban and forest areas. In Central Europe fungus infects  mainly pinus mugo uncinata (mug species) but also  P. sylvestris, P. nigra and P. mugo. Currently used pesticites are unsufficient despite funguj spreads slowly and occurs only in few localizations. Scirrhia acicola was occasionally detected in PRA area and infested low numbers of its host plants (Pusz et. al. 2013). All Pinus species are potential hosts, but the most important in PRA area are: P. strobus, P. sylvestris, P. nigra. Some of species (like P. banksiana) have proven to be high resistant (Skilling & Nicholls, 1974).

Rating of the likelihood of entry: low/ moderate (There is possibility of spread and access to the host plants in case of fungus entry).

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: low/ moderate (because of occasionally fungus occurrence in PRA area)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: low  (because of low number of fungus reports)

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: low (because of other ratings)

Long-needle varieties are resistant to infection and should be preferred species in Christmas tree plantations (Phelps et.al., 1978).

Phytosanitariaty measures based on applications of Bordeaux mixture, chlorothalonil, benomyl and copper hydroxide in nurseries, seed orchards, and plantations of longleaf pine and Scots pine.

Seedlings should be sprayed at 10- to 30-day intervals from beginning of spring to the end of the summer.

Level of uncertainty of assessment depends on all previous reports of pest occurence in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Other recommendations