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Keiferia lycopersicella

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Keiferia lycopersicella

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: tomato crops – southern and south-western Poland; glasshouses crops- the entire PRA area  

Main conclusions:

K. lycopersicella is tomato and eggplant crops pest. These crops are economic important cultivations in PRA area.

Insect causes serious losses in North America. The highest risk of damages will be in Middeartatean region and area of host plants cultivations (in protected conditions).

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures is high because of tomato import from area where K. lycopersicella occurs. Risk will be higher if packaging is adjacent to area of host plant crops.

Pest may be transmitted with packages (using in import and harvest) and of tomato/ eggplant seedlings. Considering that risk, all phytosanitary measures need to be taken.

Pheromone traps are very sensitive and should be used in place of production in order to detect the pest. Production of seedlings should be carried out under the control and only pest-free plant for planting need be used.

Visual controls and pheromone traps are basic phytosanitary measures throughout the growing period.

Production require stringent measures to immediately eradicate pest as soon as it occurs.

It is necessary to remove plant waste from previous crops, packs and prepare in pest-free place of production, use only new packages. Removing of tomato leaves and branches increase pest detection.

Using systemic insecticides before export is possibile option of eraditation, but there is no information if it is sufficiently effective. The quarantine period before export will be too long for seedlings. The risk of pest entry is lower in case of tomato import (for processing or ready-to-eat) in winter period (below 5°C, but K. lycopersicellanie can survive at the lower temperature). Removing of green parts of plant may propably reduce the risk of pest spread.

The risk will be reduce in case of immediate plant processing and removal of waste but it is difficult to control in practice. Panel on phytosanitary measures found all methods insufficient to ensure the pest-free import.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Other recommendations:


Liriomyza huidobrensis

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard, 1926

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: greenhouse crops: ornamental plants, cucumber, lettuce;  field crops: sugar beet, potato, vegetables, ornamental plants

Main conclusions

Liriomyza huidobrensis is a polyphagous species.Most of its host plants are commonly cultivated in PRA area. Hosts of this leaf miner include lettuce, cucumber, onion and many ornamental plants, (especially cultivated in greenhouses). Insect is potato, sugar beet, vegetables, ornamental plants pest in field crops .

Pest is native to Central and Eastern Europe but it presents also in Mediterranean region.

Considering climate changes scenarios for PRA area that is unlikely that pest will be able to survive winter in open field crops. However many experts suggest that likelihood of survive may increase due to climate changes (especially shorter and milder winter).

Correct identification and monitoring are crucial to reduce the pest spread.

Yellow sticky papers are efficient method used to trap out pests, especially in place of production and packaging workshops.

Additionally, the morphological similarity of L. huidobrensis to other pest species (of Agromyzidae family) can cause numerous misidentifications.

Visual controls of consigments may be insufficient, becouse of occurence of all pest life stages at the same time.

Rating of the likelihood of impact without use of phytosanitary measures: High

Ornamental plants, seedlings, vegetables are imported from areas of pest occurence

PRA experts suggest to clasify L. huidobrensis as quarantine officially regulated pest. L. huidobrensis spread may be limited by creation of protected zones in pest free areas.

In addition, legal regulation of host plants (and potential host plans) import should be actualized.

Spraying insecticide is commonly used as sufficient phytosanitary measure.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Other recommendations:


Longidorus diadecturus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Longidorus diadecturus Eveleigh i Allen, 1982

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: peach orchards –south and west Poland;. other fruits crops like: blueberries should be also considerd.

Main conclusions

Longidorus diadecturus Eveleigh i Allen, 1982 is a peach pest and vector of Peach rosette mosaic virus (PRMV). Despite lack of data from the literature, this nematode is possibly  polyphagous like other Longidorus species. L. diadecturus occurs in USA and Canada. In case of similar climate condtions in PRA area there is high posibility that pest may appear and survie in Poland. The most likely way of entry is transport/import of infected soil or substrat in which host plants are cultivated.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: low

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: moderate

Rating of the likelihood of spread: moderate

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: moderate

There is lack of data and information to overall pottential risk assessment

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Other recommendations:

- regular inspection of susceptible crops/areas

- more researches - probability of pest survival and new hosts in PRA area


Macrophomina phaseolina

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Macrophomina phaseolina

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area

Main conclusions:

Macrophomina phaseolina is plant patogen fungus. Pathogen has a broad host range including cultivated and wild plants. Fungus is a heat- and drought-favoring and prefer regions with those climatic conditions. M. phaseolina was not reported in PRA area.. However, the pest occurence can not be fully excluded, because of low detection rate and little harmfulness. M. phaseolina may pose the risk to maize, tabacco and Leguminous plants crops. Fungus occurence is correlated with climatic conditions and inoculum availability.

Most of host plants and inokulum can not successfully overwinter in Poland, because of low temperature and high humindity. All of those factors limit pest occurrence in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Other recommendations:

·         Monitoring of susceptible crops (maize, tabacco, bean family) 

·         Analysis of  symptoms of a possibile infestation of Macrophomina phaseolina.


Massicus raddei

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Massicus raddei Kusama, 1973

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area (including urban area, field copses and areas where oaks grow)

Main conclusions

The plant pest M. raddei is harmful for oaks and causes serious economic losses in China. There are two important oak species in Poland- common oak (Q. robur) and sessile oak (Q. petrea). All oaks species are endangered if M. raddei occurs in PRA area.

The impact of pest in PRA area depends on its feeding preferences. If pest find host plants in Poland, it will negatively affect forest ecosystems and associated with them economic sectors.

M. raddei nowadays is a pest of minor importance for oak species in Poland but level of uncertainty of assessment is high. The climate conditions in PRA area seems to be suitable for this pest.

It is essential to devise methods of pest and disease detection in case of M. raddei occurrence in PRA area. All infected material should be disposed.

M. raddei is a large beetle because of that identification is easy and eradication measures (the light traps have successfully captured beetles) should be efficient.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

X

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommmendations


Meloidogyne chitwoodi

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Meloidogyne chitwoodi Golden, O’Bannon, Santo et Finley, 1980

PRA area: Poland

The entire PRA area is endangered in case of pathogen occurence. Most of host plants occur in Poland. In order to climate conditions, Meloidogyne chitwoodi may cause losses (in both quality and quantity) especially in potato and carrot crops in West and South Poland. Other regions seem to be endangered.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

X

High

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

High

Other recommendations


Meloidogyne ethiopica

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: Based on climate analysis, M. ethiopica might colonise PRA area in both- open field and greenhouse crops.

Main conclusions

M. ethiopica can be introduced in PRA area with plant tissues, growing medium, vegetable waste or for research purposes. Root-knot nematode might colonise the entire PRA area. It is difficult to estimate the pest impact on field crops, but we can observe losses in greenhouses (with natural growing medium). There is no information about resistance of using plant varietes.

Probability of introduction and spread can be reduced by:

·         consignments control- a systematic examination in order to detect the presence of pest

·         using only nematoda-free propagation material,

·         in case of pest occurence in field crops- pest removal from the machines, agricultural tools, infected plants

·          using chemical pesticides

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations:


Meloidogyne fallax

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Meloidogyne fallax Karssen, 1996

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: M. fallax is a pathogen of many monocot and dicot species but it has been mainly recorded on potato, oyster plant (Scorzonera hispanica) and carrot. Nematoda may cause losses in carrot, potato, oyster plant crops in PRA area. The likelihood of losses increase in crops on sandy soils.

Main conclusions:

The entire country is endangered in case of M. fallax occurrence. Many of host plants grow and are cultivated in PRA area. Based on available literature data, pest may cause losses in carrot, potato, oyster plant crops in PRA area  There is also a risk that M. Falla may cause damages in cultivations in protected conditions.

Phytosanitary measures:

  1. Examination of consignments
  2. Using of nematode free planting material
  3. In case of pest occurence in field crops: Strict measures must be taken to prevent pest entry or further spread within the Poland. Pest need to be immediately and completely eradicated.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Other recommendations: