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Scirrhia acicola

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Scirrhia acicola (Dearness) Siggers

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: areas of Pinus species occurrence

Main conclusions:

Mycosphaerella dearnessii (Scirrhia acicola), causes brown-spot needle blight (EPPO/CABI 1997) of many pine species. The brown-spot fungus mainly attacks trees from Central to North America but also in Europe (Pehl 1995). Pathogen was detected in both urban and forest areas. In Central Europe fungus infects  mainly pinus mugo uncinata (mug species) but also  P. sylvestris, P. nigra and P. mugo. Currently used pesticites are unsufficient despite funguj spreads slowly and occurs only in few localizations. Scirrhia acicola was occasionally detected in PRA area and infested low numbers of its host plants (Pusz et. al. 2013). All Pinus species are potential hosts, but the most important in PRA area are: P. strobus, P. sylvestris, P. nigra. Some of species (like P. banksiana) have proven to be high resistant (Skilling & Nicholls, 1974).

Rating of the likelihood of entry: low/ moderate (There is possibility of spread and access to the host plants in case of fungus entry).

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: low/ moderate (because of occasionally fungus occurrence in PRA area)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: low  (because of low number of fungus reports)

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: low (because of other ratings)

Long-needle varieties are resistant to infection and should be preferred species in Christmas tree plantations (Phelps et.al., 1978).

Phytosanitariaty measures based on applications of Bordeaux mixture, chlorothalonil, benomyl and copper hydroxide in nurseries, seed orchards, and plantations of longleaf pine and Scots pine.

Seedlings should be sprayed at 10- to 30-day intervals from beginning of spring to the end of the summer.

Level of uncertainty of assessment depends on all previous reports of pest occurence in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

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Stegophora ulmea

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Stegophora ulmea

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area

Main conclusions:

Stegophora ulmea is an ascomycete fungus native to North America. It is one of the most important emls (Ulmus spp.) pathogen. Pathogen may cause serious economic damage in forest tree nurseries and areas with high elms density. There are three elms species in PRA area: wych elm (U. glabra), field elm (U. minor) and European white elm (U. laevis). All of those species are potential S.ulmea host plants and may be infected with ascospores. Considering that climate conditions in PRA area are favorable for fungus it is expected that it will be able to spread in Poland.

Elms import (including bonsai trees) is not popular, therefore this way of fungus entry is insignificant. Strict controls of imported plants (especially from area of S. ulmea occurence) reduce the risk of fungus establishment. Spraying pesticides and/or removal of infected plants from forest tree nurseries are necessary phytosanitary measures.The pathogen monitoring is almost impossible in case of Stegophora ulmea occurence in natural environment.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Other recommendations: