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Agrilus anxius

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Agrilus anxius (Gory, 1841)

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:

Main conclusions

Bronze birch borer may appear in the PRA area. The most probably way of entry is intercontinental transport of birchwood from area of agrophage occurrence. The suitable weather conditions, occurrence of host plants suggest that Agrilus anxius may cause losses in forests with birches, even bigger then in its native range. Birches are commonly trees in the entire PRA area but no as monocultures. They also constitute a relatively low proportion of mixed stands. Therefore, risk of destruction of forest is limited.

All imported wood material need to be destroy by burning in case of Agrilus anxius occurence.

Eradication measures will be probably inefficient in case of bronze birch borer occurrence in natural environment in PRA area

Timely identification is very difficult because of:

- biology of this species- short lasting imago stage

- similar species living under birch bark- misidentification, especially of preimaginal stages

- adults quickly start to reproduce and settle to a new host plant, even in great distance from parent plant

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Other recommendations


Agrilus planipennis

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area

Main conclusions

The plant pest A. planipennis is particularly harmful for ashes (Fraxinus spp.) and causes serious damage in native and invasive ranges. The appearance of agrophage in PRA area is only a matter of time (probably over the next two decades).

A. planipennis is climatic generalist. The pest occurence is limited by occurence of host plants – species of the genus Fraxinus. The entire PRA area is endangered.

Imported wood controls from area of pest occurence may reduce probability of introduction and spread. Probably all eradication measures will be insufficient in case of pest occurence in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

X

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Other recommendations:


Aleurothrixus trachoides

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Aleurothrixus (=Aleurotrachelus) trachoides Back, 1912

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:  the entire PRA area. (cultivations of capsicum, tomato, rose)

Main conclusions

Solanaceae species, especially tomato, capsicum and plants of Rosa genre are commonly cultivated in the PRA area.

Rating of the likelihood of pest entry is estimated as moderate to high and establishment as low to high (depending on climate scenario). Additional, there is probability that pest can develop and find suitable conditions in greenhouses. In case of A. trachoides entry in Europe the losses in capsicum and tomato crops will be the highest in The Mediterranean area. The risk of losses in PRA area is associated maily with host plant cultivations in protected conditions.

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: high.

Main reason of this situation is  import of seedlings and vegetables from area of pest occurrence. The risk will be higher if packings take place close to host plants crops(bunch of tomatoes may be more dangerous because of probably higher number of pests on branches). Another posibble way of pest entry is import of packages as boxes used for harvest and transport from countries where A. trachoides occurs. Correct identification and pest monitoring are nessecary to protect and decrease the probability of pest entry and spread. A. trachoides is a new pest in EPPO region and there is  lack of informations about its economic impact.

Systemic and contact pesticides may be used to control whitefly depending on the crop and growing conditions. Also using of soap solution and organic oils may reduce the losses, especially at the begining of infections.

Research is ongoing on the biological methods of pest control by using several Encarsia species and predatory beetle- Axinoscymnus puttarudriahi.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Other recommendations

 


Apiosporina morbosa

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Apiosporina morbosa

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: the entire PRA area

Apiosporina morbosa is a plant pathogen, which is the causal agent of black knot. It affects plants of the genus Prunus. The main host plants cultivated in PRA area are P. domestica, P. cerasus, more rarely: Prunus persica, Prunus salicina, Prunus armeniaca. The disease produces rough, black growths that encircle and kill the infested parts. Infected trees are stunted.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: Low

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: Moderate (especially P. domestica – cultivated area 17.000 ha).The wild plants of the genus Prunus are also endangered. 

Rating of the likelihood of spread: Low (because of inspection of consignments and using fungicides)

The most important phytosanitary measure is monitoring of imported plants of genus Prunus from area of agrophage occurrence.

It is necessary to prepare strategies and eradication measures in case of occurance Apiosporina morbosa in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Other recommendations:




Bactrocera dorsalis

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: orchards: apple, peach, plums.

Endangered area is limited to adjacent to susceptible crops

Main conlusions:

Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly) is a species of tephritid fruit fly, which larvae infect tropical fruits, but also some species cultivated in the temperate zones, including PRA area.

Mated female punctures the skin of mature fruit and deposit eggs below the skin of the host fruit. Larvae feed on the flesh of the fruit. Infected plants are perishable. Oriental fruit fly couses serious economic losses in cultivations (losses can be up to 100% of unprotected fruit). Traps (liquid bait), male suppression, pesticides are the most effective control techniques against Bactrocera dorsalis.

Fruits import from area of Bactrocera dorsalis occurence is the most likely way of pest entry. The pest impact in PRA area will be lower then on its native range, because pest needs high temperatures to develop (B. dorsalis will not develop at temperatures below 13°C). Additional, host plants are grown in fields in PRA area which also reduce the posibility of pest establishment. Potential losses may be in cultivations close to area of adults flight.

Pest monitoring and traps should be the basic phytosanitary measures. If those methods will be unsufficient other eraditation methods should be consider.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

high

moderate

X

low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

high

moderate

low

X


Beet curly top virus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Beet curly top virus

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:

Main conclusions

Beet curly top virus has broad host, including more then 300 dicotyledons species from 44 families, most of them occur in PRA area. Virus couses losses in crops, especially in economic significance plants (e.g: potato, tomato, sugar beet), which. have large cultivated area in the entire country.

So far BCTV has been detected in North America, where coused losses in quality and quantity of yields. In Europe is present only in Mediterranean region (Italy, Cyprus, Turkey). Virus needs vectors to spread. Two insects species are responsible for the transmission of BCTV. C. tenellus i C. opacipensis are common in the current area of virus distribution. The climate in Central and North  Europe reduce occurence of vectors and therefore expansion of BCTV. In couse of that and low posibility of mechanial transmission the likelihood of BCTV spread in PRA area is low. However climate changes can improve condtions for C. tenellus or C. opacipensis. In such a case, the cultivated (e.g potatoe, sugarbeet) and also non-cultivated plants would be endangered.

The protection against viruses is based on systematic monitoring of imported plant material. All infected plants and vectors (on plants/fruits) need to be remove and destroy. It will ensure adequate protection against virus development in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations:


Cacoecimorpha pronubana

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner, 1799)

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: field crops - west Poland, cultivations in protected conditions- the entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Cacoecimorpha pronubana is native South Europe (Mediterranean region) species. Import and transport of seedlings and cut flowers influence on pest occurence in new area. Monitoring of consignments is a basic phytosanitary measure. Rapid climate change may allow pest development and occurrence in west Poland. Potential losses in fields crops caused by C. pronubana seem to be quite small. Pest may establish also in greenhouses.

Cacoecimorpha pronubana is included in Council Directive 74/647/EEC - "On control of carnation leaf-rollers” from 9 December 1974.

To sum up, monitoring of plant material is a basic phytosanitary measure, especially of consignments from areas where pest occurs. Special chemical protection should be used in those regions (especially in places of production of ornamental plants, spices and herbs species in pots and cut flowers) Special chemical measure need to be also used in case of pest occurrence in greenhouses. The high risk of pest entry is associated with import of seedlings (not seed and propagation material like bulbs and rhizome).

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

high

moderate

low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

high

moderate

X

low

Other recommendations


'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum'

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:: nightshades crops-  western Part of Poland (nightshades cultivated in greenhouses in entire PRA area). Carrot crops- the entire PRA

Main conclusions

‘Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum‘ may couses serious losses in Solanaceae cultivations, especially tomatoe, potatoe, pepper. The highest risk is associated with potatoe crops in PRA area.

Pest vector- Bactericera cockerelli is on A1 list EPPO and was not reoported in Europe.
therefore the likelihood of pathogen occurence in PRA area is low. In the future, agrophage occurence in PRA area will depend on vector presence (B. cockerelli). The likelihood of vectors occurence in field crops is low because of weather conditions (severe winters may eliminated vetor) B. cockerelli may not pass through the winter season in east part of Poland, but there is a risk that some part of population may migarte at the end of vegetation period. Overwintering of vector is possibile in greenhouses in which insecticides are not used.

Considering ‘Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum‘ and Trioza apicalis occurence in cultivation of carrtots in 2014 in Lower Saxony (Germany) (Munyaneza et al., 2015), there is a risk of bacteria appearance in carrots crops in PRA area. Trioza apicalis occurs in Poland (Luczak i in., 2012).

Phytosanitary measures:

The treatment combining an intercrop (especially vetch) between beds and a sawdust mulch in the beds reduce the vector occurence (Aas 2000; Brandsæter et. al., 1999).

Insect netting and insecticide application are also efficient phytosanitary measures.

Biological pest control is used in some countries. (Avery et al., 2009)

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

high

moderate

X

low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

high

x

moderate

low

Other recommendations:

·         Controls of carrot crops

·         Monitoring of pathogen vectors ­ Bactericera cockerelli, Bactericera trigonica and Trioza apicalis

·         Searching of new possibble vectors (including related to Bactericera cockerelli, and with similar host plants)