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Scirrhia acicola

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Scirrhia acicola (Dearness) Siggers

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: areas of Pinus species occurrence

Main conclusions:

Mycosphaerella dearnessii (Scirrhia acicola), causes brown-spot needle blight (EPPO/CABI 1997) of many pine species. The brown-spot fungus mainly attacks trees from Central to North America but also in Europe (Pehl 1995). Pathogen was detected in both urban and forest areas. In Central Europe fungus infects  mainly pinus mugo uncinata (mug species) but also  P. sylvestris, P. nigra and P. mugo. Currently used pesticites are unsufficient despite funguj spreads slowly and occurs only in few localizations. Scirrhia acicola was occasionally detected in PRA area and infested low numbers of its host plants (Pusz et. al. 2013). All Pinus species are potential hosts, but the most important in PRA area are: P. strobus, P. sylvestris, P. nigra. Some of species (like P. banksiana) have proven to be high resistant (Skilling & Nicholls, 1974).

Rating of the likelihood of entry: low/ moderate (There is possibility of spread and access to the host plants in case of fungus entry).

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: low/ moderate (because of occasionally fungus occurrence in PRA area)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: low  (because of low number of fungus reports)

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: low (because of other ratings)

Long-needle varieties are resistant to infection and should be preferred species in Christmas tree plantations (Phelps et.al., 1978).

Phytosanitariaty measures based on applications of Bordeaux mixture, chlorothalonil, benomyl and copper hydroxide in nurseries, seed orchards, and plantations of longleaf pine and Scots pine.

Seedlings should be sprayed at 10- to 30-day intervals from beginning of spring to the end of the summer.

Level of uncertainty of assessment depends on all previous reports of pest occurence in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Other recommendations





Stegophora ulmea

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Stegophora ulmea

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area

Main conclusions:

Stegophora ulmea is an ascomycete fungus native to North America. It is one of the most important emls (Ulmus spp.) pathogen. Pathogen may cause serious economic damage in forest tree nurseries and areas with high elms density. There are three elms species in PRA area: wych elm (U. glabra), field elm (U. minor) and European white elm (U. laevis). All of those species are potential S.ulmea host plants and may be infected with ascospores. Considering that climate conditions in PRA area are favorable for fungus it is expected that it will be able to spread in Poland.

Elms import (including bonsai trees) is not popular, therefore this way of fungus entry is insignificant. Strict controls of imported plants (especially from area of S. ulmea occurence) reduce the risk of fungus establishment. Spraying pesticides and/or removal of infected plants from forest tree nurseries are necessary phytosanitary measures.The pathogen monitoring is almost impossible in case of Stegophora ulmea occurence in natural environment.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Other recommendations:



Thekopsora minima

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Thekopsora minima P.Syd. i Syd. 1915

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area (cultivations of Vaccinium species in western part of Poland)

Main conclusions

Fungus occurs in North America and Japan. In EU pathogen was probably occured but misidentficated as Pucciniastrum vaccinii (Naohidemyces vaccini  in 2002 in Southereast Spain. In 2015 Thekopsora minima was reported in Germany (JKI 2015). Pest is not included in RL2000/29/EG list or EPPO list to this day.

Pathogen infects species of the genera Gaylussacia, Lyonia, Rhododendron (e.g. R. ponticum), Tsuga (T. canadensis, T. diversifolia), Vaccinium (V. angustifolium, V. corymbosum) (Sato et.all. 1993).

It is not known whether vaccinium species in PRA area are prone to fungal infections.

There is a likelihood of emergence of new strains with broad host species (incluing new ones) and  higher level of virulence (Newcomb et. all 2000).

Symptoms of infection appear on the upper surface of leaves and are easy to recognise. Optical microscope or DNA LSU and/or ITS rDNA sequencing are used to diagnose infection caused by Thekopsora minima (Maier i wsp. 2003, Schoch i wsp. 2012). Losses may be visible as declining in fruit yield (Vaccinnium spp) or as cosmetics damages (rhododendrons)

There is a likelihood that occurence of T. minima  may have high impact on cultivations of host plants in PRA area (Schilder et all. 2011). It is necessary to develop a new phytosanitary measures and include them in the current IPM strategies, in case of pathogen occurence in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Other recommendations:


Thrips setosus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Thrips setosus Moulton, 1928

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:

Main conclusions

Rating of the likelihood of establishment in field crops in other European countries is on moderate level.  This is mainly because of many host plants and wild plants occurrence. Some experts, entomologists, suggest that agrophage will not survive winter in PRA area even despite reports of pest presence in other European countries and potentially adequate environmental conditions in Poland.

Signal reports from Germany, England, France, Croatia suggest that pest may be transfer with plant material and spread very quickly in field crops. EFSA suggests that probability of establishment of Thrips setosus populations in Europa (including Poland) may increase alog with climate changes- milder and shorter winter (EFSA 2012). Establishment of Thrips setosus in protected conditions is rated as low.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: High (Pest may be transfer with soil, plants or parts of plants)

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: Low (Pest will not be able to survive the winter in PRA area)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: Moderate (only if pest will be able to survive in PRA area)

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: High (only if pest will be able to survive in PRA area)

Potential risk or losses caused by Thrips setosus are low because of climatic conditions in PRA area at the moment. The assessment should be repeated in case of climatic changes.

Phytosanitary measures:

·         systematic monitoring of imported plants/soil

·         import only certified material from pest-free areas

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations


Tilletia indica

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Tilletia indica

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Monitoring is necessary phytosanitary measure in case of seeds import (for the production of food and animal feed) from area of pathogen occurrence. Import this kind of material should be prohibited from epidemic regions or areas with high number of infections. Seeds imported from areas where  Tilletia indica is not present are not a subject to special phytosanitary measures. All signals of pathogen occurrence in PRA area should be analize and all detected infected plants or material need to be remove and destroy. Teliospores have high climatic-resistance so even chemical methods of eradication and crop rotation may be insufficient.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: low/moderate (strictly depending on import of infected seeds)

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Other recommendations


Tobacco ringspot virus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Tobacco ringspot virus

PRA area: Poland

Described the endangered area: The entire PRA area (especially central Poland where virus was reported)

Main conclusions

TRSV may cause crop losses in PRA area. Virus has infected Vaccinium species in Poland. These Perennials plants are virus reservoir and may be potential source of infections.

Virus vector– Xiphinema americanum is not present in PRA area, but TRSV may be transfered from plant to plant in mechanical way during phytosanitary measures and plant care procedures. Virus was not reported in cultivations in protected conditions.  However, virus may cause serious losses in case of occurence in PRA area.

Currently, there are special legal regulations which restricted spread of TRSV.

Plant material and seeds imported from North America should be certified as virus-free.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Other recommendations