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Dickeya dianthicola

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Dickeya dianthicola

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The endangered zone in which potential establishment of Dickeya dianthicola may have a significant impact is all areas of potato, tomato crops and ornamental plants such as cloves, hyacinths, dahlias, stonecrops.

Bacteria D. dianthicola has been detected three times in Poland in potato crops and there is a high probability that in the case of crop monitoring it could be detected again. There are no reports about the amount of damage caused by this pathogen that is why we should suppose, that as of today it is not a problem. There is a moderate probability that the bacteria will spread in potato crops. Spreading in greenhouse crops of decorative plants is less likely due to the controlled conditions for such crops. There are no anti-pathogen agent to directly combat the pathogen, the factor limiting occurrence and spreading is phytosanitary inspection of propagating material and compliance with hygiene rules in the place of cultivation.

The possibility of spreading the pathogen in clove growing is assessed as low due to the controlled growing conditions. Imported propagating material comes from places, where D. dianthicola was officially not found. There may be occasional infiltrations of the pathogen this way, but these will be a single cases. The higher risk is related to import of other decorative plants and potatoes. The uncertainty associated with the assessment of pathogen penetration scale with plant material is moderate due to the lack of official reports on the number of intercepts by this pathway.

The possibility of spreading in field crops is assessed as low due to the lack of reports on apperance of infected plants, with high uncertainty related to no literature data available. In greenhouse cultures the probability of pathogen spreading is defined as low, with low uncertainty.

 Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

Low


Other recommendations:








Heliothis zea

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Helicoverpa zea (Boddie, 1850)

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: maize crops- northwest Poland, cultivations in protected conditions- the entire PRA area (less important)

Main conclusions

Helicoverpa zea is a butterfly species in the family Noctuidae. The species is widely distributed across warmer regions of America. Polyphagous larvae cause serious economic losses in cotton, sorghum, maize and tomato crops.

Butterflies are highly mobile, ranging over wide areas and can settle for a while colder regions (north Canada, south Argentina). Considering  climatic conditions in PRA area, it is unlikely that pest will be able to have a permanent populations. PRA area will be endangered in case of occurence of numerous H. zea populations in south Europe (similar situation is with related species Helicoverpa  armigera)

There is a risk of crop losses in protected conditions in case of pest occurrence in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations:

Monitoring raports of losses causes by H. armigera and H. zea


Hop stunt viroid

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Hop stunt viroid na chmielu (Humulus lupulus)

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: hops garden in entire PRA area (especially Lubuskie and Wielkopolskie province)

Main conclusions:

Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) has broad host range but most of its infections are asymptomatic. Fortunately, so far viroid has not been reported in Poland. However, research carried out in Slovenia (one of the main hop producers in UE) showed that HSVd occurs in some tree plantations and hop fields (main host plant).

Rating of the likelihood of entry in PRA area: low (Most of propagation material is producted in Poland. Seedlings are imported from Germany, where viroid is not present. HSVd occurs in Japan, China, USA, but import from those area is insignificant.

Import of infected citrus is main way of entry. Most of plant waste is sent to landfill sites, where virioid poses no risk.

However spread from citrus to hops is asocciated with risk of the waste-related transmission.

It is important that viroid may be easily mechanically transmited between plants. High density planting also increase the risk of spread.

HSVd can be also transmitted by contaminated tools and machinery, clothing. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures must be complied with in full.

Cultivations of host plants need to be systematically monitored in case of viroid occurence.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Other recommendations:

·         Controls of propagation material imported to Poland

·         Monitoring of hops field (for any evidence of viroids occurence)

·         Better legal regulation in order to reduce the possibility of viroid occurence in UE and PRA area