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'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum'

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:: nightshades crops-  western Part of Poland (nightshades cultivated in greenhouses in entire PRA area). Carrot crops- the entire PRA

Main conclusions

‘Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum‘ may couses serious losses in Solanaceae cultivations, especially tomatoe, potatoe, pepper. The highest risk is associated with potatoe crops in PRA area.

Pest vector- Bactericera cockerelli is on A1 list EPPO and was not reoported in Europe.
therefore the likelihood of pathogen occurence in PRA area is low. In the future, agrophage occurence in PRA area will depend on vector presence (B. cockerelli). The likelihood of vectors occurence in field crops is low because of weather conditions (severe winters may eliminated vetor) B. cockerelli may not pass through the winter season in east part of Poland, but there is a risk that some part of population may migarte at the end of vegetation period. Overwintering of vector is possibile in greenhouses in which insecticides are not used.

Considering ‘Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum‘ and Trioza apicalis occurence in cultivation of carrtots in 2014 in Lower Saxony (Germany) (Munyaneza et al., 2015), there is a risk of bacteria appearance in carrots crops in PRA area. Trioza apicalis occurs in Poland (Luczak i in., 2012).

Phytosanitary measures:

The treatment combining an intercrop (especially vetch) between beds and a sawdust mulch in the beds reduce the vector occurence (Aas 2000; Brandsæter et. al., 1999).

Insect netting and insecticide application are also efficient phytosanitary measures.

Biological pest control is used in some countries. (Avery et al., 2009)

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

high

moderate

X

low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

high

x

moderate

low

Other recommendations:

·         Controls of carrot crops

·         Monitoring of pathogen vectors ­ Bactericera cockerelli, Bactericera trigonica and Trioza apicalis

·         Searching of new possibble vectors (including related to Bactericera cockerelli, and with similar host plants)


Candidatus 'Phytoplasma solani’

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Candidatus Phytoplasma solani

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: vine: the southern and southeastern Poland;

maize: the entire PRA area; other crops (e.g.: strawberries, tomato) –areas of cultivations

Candidatus Phytoplasma solani may cause serious losses in crops include economic important cultivated species, such as maize, vine, potato, tomato. Climate and weather conditions in PRA area are not suitable for CA. P. Solani. Infections are incidental but pathogen might find suitable conditions in glasshouses. Pathogen is potentially very dangerous, because of broad host range (all of host plants are still unknow). Phytoplasm has also a large group of vector species. More studies are carried out in order to identify the new vectors. This affects the assessment of level uncertainty.

In addition Ca. P. solani can survive and end life cycle without cultivated host plants, because wild plants are main hosts of Ca. P solani.

There is no possibility of complete eradication of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ from natural environment.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

·         host plants elimination especially when natural plant reservoirs adjacent  to susceptible crops

·         using insecticides in order to reduce amounts of any vectors

·         using certified propagation material


Choristoneura lafauryana

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Choristoneura lafauryana (Ragonot, 1875)

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:  field crops- west Poland

Main conclusions:

Choristoneura lafauryana in native to west and south Europa. Insect was reported also in Asia (even in Japan and Korea). The range of pest distribution may be extended because of climatic change.

Overall risk assesment:

There is no data of Choristoneura lafauryana occurrence in PRA area. However, pest was reported in Gemany, where probably is very abundant.

Mistakes in pest identification are common, as some of Tortricidae (Choristoneura and Archips genres) species look and act alike Choristoneura lafauryana . Becouse of that pest may be present in PRA area.

In case of climate change the pest may be able to survive in PRA area (especially in West Poland)

The likelihood of losses in filed crops is low.

Phytosanitary measures:

Monitoring and special chemical protection of imported plant material (especially ornament al and fruit plants, spice species in pots) from area of C. lafauryana occurence are basic phytosanitary measures.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Other recommendations:


Citrus bark cracking viroid

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Citrus bark cracking viroid

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: hop fields in entire PRA area (especially west part of Poland)

Main conclusions:

CBCVd occurences in Slovenia indicate that viroid may be transmitted between different hosts species. CBCVd outbreaks in Slovenia represent a high risk for European hop production.

Viroid has negative impact on hops gardens (negative effect on growth) and causes serious losses (infected plants die within 3-5 years). Viroid may also causes serious economic damage in case of occurence in PRA area.

Import of infected citrus is main way of entry. Most of plant waste is sent to landfill sites, where virioid poses no risk.

Viroid spread from citrus to hops is associated with risk of the waste-related transmission.

The likelihood of CBCVd spread is high because of vegetative propagation and a lot of plant waste.

Viroid can be transmitted by vegetative propagation, grafting, foliar contact between neighboring plants, contaminated tools and machinery, clothing because of that  there needs to be compliance with  phytosanitary measures.

The protection against viroids is based on systematic monitoring of imported propagation plant material. All infected plants and vectors (on plants/fruits) need to be remove and destroy. It will ensure adequate protection against viroids development in PRA area. Cultivations of host plants need to be systematically monitored in case of viroid occurence.

Propagation material and seeds imported to Poland should have viroid-free certificate.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Other recommendations:

·         Controls of propagation material imported to Poland

·         Monitoring of hops field (for any evidence of viroids occurence)

·         Better legal regulation in order to reduce the possibility of viroid occurence in UE and PRA area

·         Controls of propagation material distributed in PRA area

·         Legal regulation – viroid as quarantine pathogen





Cocksfoot mottle virus, (Wirus pstrości kupkówki, CfMV)


Coniferiporia weirii

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Coniferiporia weirii

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area

Main conclusion

Coniferiporia weirii occurs in patches or centres of infection mostly as root rot. Pathogen may infect many conifer species in Europe. The main host plant is Pseudotsuga menziesii. Coast Douglas-fir occurs only in Pomerania and constitutes a relatively low proportion of mixed stands. C. weirii has A1 quarantine status for EPPOs. Fungus introduction and spread is prohibited in Europe. The most likely way of entry is import of infested seedlings, infected raw timber, logs, bark. Natural dispersal occurs slowly. The disease is hard to detect, because symptoms become apparent when the root system is in an advanced stage of deterioration. C. weirii is native North America, Japan and China species. The fungus may appear in PRA area, in case of similar climatic conditions.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: Low

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: High

Rating of the likelihood of spread: Low (The main host plants are introduced and rarely grow in Poland. However C. weirii may infect many conifer species in EPPO region)

The most important phytosanitary measure is monitoring of imported plant material and wood from area where fungus occurs.

It is necessary to prepare strategies and eradication measures in case of fungus occurance in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations


Dendrolimus sibiricus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Dendrolimus sibiricus

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: mixed and pure stands of conifers

Main conclusions

White-lined silk moth presents a potential risk for forests in PRA area. Considering climatic conditions and the fact that conifers are commonly (almost 70% of trees) in Poland it is expected that pest will be able to establish and spread in PRA area.

If environmental resistance will be insufficient there is possibility of progressively establishment and forest damage.

All of phytosanitary measures and eradication methods should be used in case of pest occurrence in PRA area. Import of wood material is prohibited from non European countries so this way of entry is insignificant.

Wood or plants with larvae or eggs of D.sibiricus need to be destroy.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

X

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Other recommendations: