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Thekopsora minima

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Thekopsora minima P.Syd. i Syd. 1915

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area (cultivations of Vaccinium species in western part of Poland)

Main conclusions

Fungus occurs in North America and Japan. In EU pathogen was probably occured but misidentficated as Pucciniastrum vaccinii (Naohidemyces vaccini  in 2002 in Southereast Spain. In 2015 Thekopsora minima was reported in Germany (JKI 2015). Pest is not included in RL2000/29/EG list or EPPO list to this day.

Pathogen infects species of the genera Gaylussacia, Lyonia, Rhododendron (e.g. R. ponticum), Tsuga (T. canadensis, T. diversifolia), Vaccinium (V. angustifolium, V. corymbosum) (Sato et.all. 1993).

It is not known whether vaccinium species in PRA area are prone to fungal infections.

There is a likelihood of emergence of new strains with broad host species (incluing new ones) and  higher level of virulence (Newcomb et. all 2000).

Symptoms of infection appear on the upper surface of leaves and are easy to recognise. Optical microscope or DNA LSU and/or ITS rDNA sequencing are used to diagnose infection caused by Thekopsora minima (Maier i wsp. 2003, Schoch i wsp. 2012). Losses may be visible as declining in fruit yield (Vaccinnium spp) or as cosmetics damages (rhododendrons)

There is a likelihood that occurence of T. minima  may have high impact on cultivations of host plants in PRA area (Schilder et all. 2011). It is necessary to develop a new phytosanitary measures and include them in the current IPM strategies, in case of pathogen occurence in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Other recommendations:


Thrips setosus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Thrips setosus Moulton, 1928

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:

Main conclusions

Rating of the likelihood of establishment in field crops in other European countries is on moderate level.  This is mainly because of many host plants and wild plants occurrence. Some experts, entomologists, suggest that agrophage will not survive winter in PRA area even despite reports of pest presence in other European countries and potentially adequate environmental conditions in Poland.

Signal reports from Germany, England, France, Croatia suggest that pest may be transfer with plant material and spread very quickly in field crops. EFSA suggests that probability of establishment of Thrips setosus populations in Europa (including Poland) may increase alog with climate changes- milder and shorter winter (EFSA 2012). Establishment of Thrips setosus in protected conditions is rated as low.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: High (Pest may be transfer with soil, plants or parts of plants)

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: Low (Pest will not be able to survive the winter in PRA area)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: Moderate (only if pest will be able to survive in PRA area)

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: High (only if pest will be able to survive in PRA area)

Potential risk or losses caused by Thrips setosus are low because of climatic conditions in PRA area at the moment. The assessment should be repeated in case of climatic changes.

Phytosanitary measures:

·         systematic monitoring of imported plants/soil

·         import only certified material from pest-free areas

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations


Tilletia indica

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Tilletia indica

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Monitoring is necessary phytosanitary measure in case of seeds import (for the production of food and animal feed) from area of pathogen occurrence. Import this kind of material should be prohibited from epidemic regions or areas with high number of infections. Seeds imported from areas where  Tilletia indica is not present are not a subject to special phytosanitary measures. All signals of pathogen occurrence in PRA area should be analize and all detected infected plants or material need to be remove and destroy. Teliospores have high climatic-resistance so even chemical methods of eradication and crop rotation may be insufficient.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: low/moderate (strictly depending on import of infected seeds)

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

X

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Other recommendations


Tobacco ringspot virus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Tobacco ringspot virus

PRA area: Poland

Described the endangered area: The entire PRA area (especially central Poland where virus was reported)

Main conclusions

TRSV may cause crop losses in PRA area. Virus has infected Vaccinium species in Poland. These Perennials plants are virus reservoir and may be potential source of infections.

Virus vector– Xiphinema americanum is not present in PRA area, but TRSV may be transfered from plant to plant in mechanical way during phytosanitary measures and plant care procedures. Virus was not reported in cultivations in protected conditions.  However, virus may cause serious losses in case of occurence in PRA area.

Currently, there are special legal regulations which restricted spread of TRSV.

Plant material and seeds imported from North America should be certified as virus-free.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Other recommendations


Tomato apical stunt viroid

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Tomato apical stunt viroid

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area –tomatoes  and ornamental plants cultivated areas

Main conclusions

Tomato apical stunt viroid has a narrow host range. Viroid may cause losses in tomato crops in case of occurence in PRA area. There are few reports of pathogen occurence in EU, Africa and Asia. Viroid is readily transmitted by sap of infected plants. This is a potential source of TASVd spread in and between crops. Viroid transmission with tomato seeds is also possible way of entry. In 2012 TASVd was reported in PRA area. Viroid was found in ornamental plants imported from Neatherlands. TASVd is not subject to special regulation and there is no special controls of postviroid occurrence in imported plants.

Visual inspection of potentially infected plants is a basic phytosanitary measure. This method seems to be unsufficient because most of infections are asymptomatic.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations

Fruit and ornamental plant producers need to be informed about import requirements and use only certified viroid-free propagation material


Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for ‘Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus’

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: The entire PRA area, especially Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. crops

Main conclusions

Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus causes serious damage to the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae crops (losses in quality and quantity of yields). Until recently, the virus was reported mainly in Asia. However, ToLCNDV has been reported also in Turkey, Spain and Italy in recent years. Virus needs vectors to spread. Bemisia tabaci is responsible for the transmission of ToLCNDV. Insect occurs in Europe (including Poland) in both field and greenhouse crop. Most of host plants are cultivated in PRA area. and will be endangered in case of virus occurence in Poland (also becouse of vector presence).

The most likely introduction route of ToLCNDV into Poland is through import of infected material. Systematic controls in order to detect the presence of virus (or infection symptoms) can reduce probability of introduction and spread.

The protection against viruses is based on systematic monitoring of imported plant material. Infected plants and vectors need to be remove and destroy. It will ensure adequate protection against virus development in PRA area. Cultivations of host plants need to be systematically monitored in case of pathogen occurence in Poland.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations:


Tomato ringspot nepovirus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Tomato ringspot nepovirus

PRA area: Poland

Described of the endangered area: the entire PRA area (tree and bush fruits, ornamental plants crops)

Main conclusions: Tomato ringspot nepovirus (TomRSV) may cause serious losses in tree/bush fruits and cultivation of ornamental plants. Virus transfer mechanically and by vaccinations so there is a high risk that the virus may be delivered unconsciously over and between crops (especially when infection is asymptomatic). The most likely way of entry is transfer with seeds. Additionally, some nematodes (genre Xiphinema ) are TomRSV vectors. Virus was not reported in Poland. Most of host plants and some of Xiphinema species (which were not tested as TomRSV vectors) occur in PRA area.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Other recommendations:

·         Controls of imported propagation material

·         Controls of fields and glasshouses crops

·         Monitoring of vectors

·         More research of virus biology and potential ways of transmission

·         Fruit and ornamental plant producers need to be informed about about import requirements and use only certified virus-free seeds and seedlings


Tomato yellow ring virus

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Tomato yellow ring virus

PRA area: Poland

Described of the endangered area: Tomato crops– central Poland; Ornamental plants crops– the entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Tomato yellow ring virus may cause serious losses in cultivations of tomato, potato, ornamental plants. Virus transfer easily in mechanical way. Therefore there is high risk that the virus may be delivered unconsciously over and beetween crops (especially when infections are asymptomatic)

Additionally, risk of TYRV spread increases if vectors (Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci) occur.

Virus was detected in Poland in tomato crops (during one vegetation cycle) (Zarzyńska-Nowak et. al 2016). Probably, virus was transfered to Poland with tomato seedlings. There is no more information of virus occurence in PRA area.

TYRV has broad host range but was reported in most cases in tomato crops along with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV).

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Other recommendations:

·         Controls of imported propagation material

·         Monitoring of tomato and potato crops

·         Vectors– Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci– monitoring

·         Fruit and ornamental plant producers need to be informed about import requirements and use only certified viroid-free propagation material