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Phyllosticta solitaria

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Phyllosticta solitaria

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:  The entire PRA area

Main conclusions:

Phyllosticta solitaria is a plant pathogen that infects apple, pears, thornapples (cultivated and wild). P. solitaria causes apple blotch. Pathogen occurs in North America. It was reported only once in Europe in the mid-20th century in Denmark. Recently published reports from the USA suggest that losses caused by Phyllosticta solitaria has been decreasing in the last few years.

Pathogen prefers high temperature and humidity. Given the above, climatic conditions in PRA area are adverse for Phyllosticta solitaria. Fungus still could potentially pose a risk for apple orchards, because of lack of pathogens with the same ecological niche.

In case of climatic change Phyllosticta solitaria may cause serious losses in apple and pear crops.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

X

Low

Other recommendations:

Monitoring of susceptible crops (apple, pears orchads)

Monitoring of  Malus, Pyrus, Crataegus plants for planting


Phytophthora chrysanthemi

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Phytophthora chrysanthemi

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: the entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Phytophthora chrysanthemi is pathogen of plants of genus Chrysanthemum. From 1998 (Naher et. al. 2011) to 2017 P. chrysanthemi was detected in 4 countries (Tomiċ and  Iviċ 2015, Götz et. al 2017).

Phytophthora chrysanthemi also appears in Germany, which are second only to Netherlands in production of plant material for cultivation and export.

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: High

Greenhouses crops are at particular risk due to sufficient (high temperature) conditions.

Rating of the likelihood of damage in open air cultivation: Low

Potential risk of losses caused by pathogen is low because of climatic conditions in PRA area at the moment. The assessment should be repeated in case of climatic changes.

Additionally, the similarity of symptoms between infections caused by Phytophthora chrysanthemi and other Phytophthora species can cause numerous misidentifications.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: moderate

Rating of the likelihood of establishment: high (for crops in protected conditions)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: low

Pest may spread in field crops and gardens in case of climatic changes in PRA area.

Control of imported material from area of pest occurence is a basic phytosanitary measure.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations



Puccinia pittieriana

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Puccinia pittieriana Hennings

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: the entire PRA area

Puccinia pittieriana is a microcyclic rust fungus. This plant pathogen infects agricultural crops such as potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and wild species of Solanum genus in South and Central America. Puccinia pittieriana is noted as quarantine organism on EPPO A1 list for Europa (EPPO 2018) and in Annex 2, point A - Section 1 of Council Directive 2000/29/EC.Fungus may infect plants in cool, moist regions of temperate and tropical zones.

Basidiospores are short-lived and produced in low numbers, wind-borne but no for a long distances.

P. pittieriana was detected in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay and Venezuela (IMI 1994). There is no informaction about pest occurrence in crops in PRA area.

Rating of the likelihood of entry: Low (There is a possibility of spread and access to the host plants in case of fungus entry in the PRA area)

Rating of the likelihood of establishment outdoors and in protected conditions: Low (because of low possibility that teliospores and basidiospores may be transmitted from South and Central America to Poland)

Rating of the likelihood of spread: Low (because of plants material monitoring, phytosanitary controls, special import procedures)

Rating of the likelihood of impact without phytosanitary measures: Low (because of other ratings)

The greatest risk of entry is associated with import of infected plants or soil from areas where fungus occurs. Inspection of imported material from South and Central America is a basic phytosanitary measure. Infected material need to be destroy for example by burning (infected plants are sources of inoculum).

Fungicides based od imidazoles and triazoles are efficient method of plants protection (French et. al. 1972, Quijano 1988, Velastegui 1991).

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

 

Moderate

 

Low

 

Other recommendations