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Cacoecimorpha pronubana

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner, 1799)

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: field crops - west Poland, cultivations in protected conditions- the entire PRA area

Main conclusions

Cacoecimorpha pronubana is native South Europe (Mediterranean region) species. Import and transport of seedlings and cut flowers influence on pest occurence in new area. Monitoring of consignments is a basic phytosanitary measure. Rapid climate change may allow pest development and occurrence in west Poland. Potential losses in fields crops caused by C. pronubana seem to be quite small. Pest may establish also in greenhouses.

Cacoecimorpha pronubana is included in Council Directive 74/647/EEC - "On control of carnation leaf-rollers” from 9 December 1974.

To sum up, monitoring of plant material is a basic phytosanitary measure, especially of consignments from areas where pest occurs. Special chemical protection should be used in those regions (especially in places of production of ornamental plants, spices and herbs species in pots and cut flowers) Special chemical measure need to be also used in case of pest occurrence in greenhouses. The high risk of pest entry is associated with import of seedlings (not seed and propagation material like bulbs and rhizome).

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

high

moderate

low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

high

moderate

X

low

Other recommendations


'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum'

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:: nightshades crops-  western Part of Poland (nightshades cultivated in greenhouses in entire PRA area). Carrot crops- the entire PRA

Main conclusions

‘Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum‘ may couses serious losses in Solanaceae cultivations, especially tomatoe, potatoe, pepper. The highest risk is associated with potatoe crops in PRA area.

Pest vector- Bactericera cockerelli is on A1 list EPPO and was not reoported in Europe.
therefore the likelihood of pathogen occurence in PRA area is low. In the future, agrophage occurence in PRA area will depend on vector presence (B. cockerelli). The likelihood of vectors occurence in field crops is low because of weather conditions (severe winters may eliminated vetor) B. cockerelli may not pass through the winter season in east part of Poland, but there is a risk that some part of population may migarte at the end of vegetation period. Overwintering of vector is possibile in greenhouses in which insecticides are not used.

Considering ‘Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum‘ and Trioza apicalis occurence in cultivation of carrtots in 2014 in Lower Saxony (Germany) (Munyaneza et al., 2015), there is a risk of bacteria appearance in carrots crops in PRA area. Trioza apicalis occurs in Poland (Luczak i in., 2012).

Phytosanitary measures:

The treatment combining an intercrop (especially vetch) between beds and a sawdust mulch in the beds reduce the vector occurence (Aas 2000; Brandsæter et. al., 1999).

Insect netting and insecticide application are also efficient phytosanitary measures.

Biological pest control is used in some countries. (Avery et al., 2009)

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

high

moderate

X

low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

high

x

moderate

low

Other recommendations:

·         Controls of carrot crops

·         Monitoring of pathogen vectors ­ Bactericera cockerelli, Bactericera trigonica and Trioza apicalis

·         Searching of new possibble vectors (including related to Bactericera cockerelli, and with similar host plants)


Candidatus 'Phytoplasma solani’

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Candidatus Phytoplasma solani

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: vine: the southern and southeastern Poland;

maize: the entire PRA area; other crops (e.g.: strawberries, tomato) –areas of cultivations

Candidatus Phytoplasma solani may cause serious losses in crops include economic important cultivated species, such as maize, vine, potato, tomato. Climate and weather conditions in PRA area are not suitable for CA. P. Solani. Infections are incidental but pathogen might find suitable conditions in glasshouses. Pathogen is potentially very dangerous, because of broad host range (all of host plants are still unknow). Phytoplasm has also a large group of vector species. More studies are carried out in order to identify the new vectors. This affects the assessment of level uncertainty.

In addition Ca. P. solani can survive and end life cycle without cultivated host plants, because wild plants are main hosts of Ca. P solani.

There is no possibility of complete eradication of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’ from natural environment.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

·         host plants elimination especially when natural plant reservoirs adjacent  to susceptible crops

·         using insecticides in order to reduce amounts of any vectors

·         using certified propagation material




Choristoneura lafauryana

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Choristoneura lafauryana (Ragonot, 1875)

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area:  field crops- west Poland

Main conclusions:

Choristoneura lafauryana in native to west and south Europa. Insect was reported also in Asia (even in Japan and Korea). The range of pest distribution may be extended because of climatic change.

Overall risk assesment:

There is no data of Choristoneura lafauryana occurrence in PRA area. However, pest was reported in Gemany, where probably is very abundant.

Mistakes in pest identification are common, as some of Tortricidae (Choristoneura and Archips genres) species look and act alike Choristoneura lafauryana . Becouse of that pest may be present in PRA area.

In case of climate change the pest may be able to survive in PRA area (especially in West Poland)

The likelihood of losses in filed crops is low.

Phytosanitary measures:

Monitoring and special chemical protection of imported plant material (especially ornament al and fruit plants, spice species in pots) from area of C. lafauryana occurence are basic phytosanitary measures.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Other recommendations:



Citrus bark cracking viroid

Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Citrus bark cracking viroid

PRA area: Poland

Describe the endangered area: hop fields in entire PRA area (especially west part of Poland)

Main conclusions:

CBCVd occurences in Slovenia indicate that viroid may be transmitted between different hosts species. CBCVd outbreaks in Slovenia represent a high risk for European hop production.

Viroid has negative impact on hops gardens (negative effect on growth) and causes serious losses (infected plants die within 3-5 years). Viroid may also causes serious economic damage in case of occurence in PRA area.

Import of infected citrus is main way of entry. Most of plant waste is sent to landfill sites, where virioid poses no risk.

Viroid spread from citrus to hops is associated with risk of the waste-related transmission.

The likelihood of CBCVd spread is high because of vegetative propagation and a lot of plant waste.

Viroid can be transmitted by vegetative propagation, grafting, foliar contact between neighboring plants, contaminated tools and machinery, clothing because of that  there needs to be compliance with  phytosanitary measures.

The protection against viroids is based on systematic monitoring of imported propagation plant material. All infected plants and vectors (on plants/fruits) need to be remove and destroy. It will ensure adequate protection against viroids development in PRA area. Cultivations of host plants need to be systematically monitored in case of viroid occurence.

Propagation material and seeds imported to Poland should have viroid-free certificate.

Phytosanitary risk for the endangered area

(Individual ratings for likelihood of entry and establishment, and for magnitude of spread and impact are provided in thedocument)

High

X

Moderate

Low

Level of uncertainty of assessment

(see Q 18 for the justification of the rating. Individual ratings of uncertainty of entry, establishment, spread and impact are provided in the document)

High

Moderate

Low

X

Other recommendations:

·         Controls of propagation material imported to Poland

·         Monitoring of hops field (for any evidence of viroids occurence)

·         Better legal regulation in order to reduce the possibility of viroid occurence in UE and PRA area

·         Controls of propagation material distributed in PRA area

·         Legal regulation – viroid as quarantine pathogen